ABSTRACTS

 

ADAMS, Toby

Department of Biology

INVESTIGATION OF WATER MOVEMENT IN LYCOPODIUM OBSCURUM

(George Briggs)

 

The movement of water through the junction of branches in Lycopodium obscurum was investigated. It has been demonstrated that water moves through the regions of plants according to the laws of water potential. The question arises in branching plants as to which direction water moves when more than one region of lower water potential exist. For Lycopodium obscurum this becomes important because as a stoloniferous plant, a "runner" branch services many vertical ramets. It may be most efficient for a plant of this type to direct water such that the branch that services many vertical ramets receives the water. The pressure bomb apparatus was used to measure the water potential of L. obscurum and to measure water volume through the junction of vertical ramets. Comparisons were made of plants under water stress and plants not under water stress. The data suggest that under stressful water conditions, more water moves to the branch that services many ramets. The implications of the results are then discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAYER, Mary Rose

Department of Geological Sciences

A DETERMINATION OF THE OCCURRENCE AND DURATION OF HIATUSES IN THE UPPER DEVONIAN CHATTANOOGA SHALE USING BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC INDICATORS

(D. Jeffrey Over)

 

The Chattanooga Shale is a black shale deposited in a marine environment during the Late Devonian, approximately 374 Ma. It is composed of two recognized members, the lower Dowelltown and the upper Gassaway Members. Stratigraphic sequences from the Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale of the southern Appalachian Basin at the Hurricane Creek, Tennessee locality and its equivalent in the Black Warrior Basin at the Olive Hill, Tennessee locality are lithologically dissimilar. Several major unconformities and associated hiatuses (periods of no deposition and/or erosion) are present within the Chattanooga Shale. The number and duration of these events is important to stratigraphic correlation and a detailed understanding of environmental conditions during the time of deposition. An interpretation of the lithology and a systematic identification of the conodonts present in the Chattanooga were used to determine environmental conditions and identify hiatuses, Conodonts, the phosphatic, tooth-like remains of an extinct, eel like organism, are important to stratigraphic correlation. Chattanooga Shale samples from two localities at Olive Hill, TN and Hurricane Creek, TN were measured, collected and processed to find conodonts. Biostratigraphically significant conodonts were retrieved and utilized in the assignment of biostratigraphic intervals to rock strata. The Hurricane Creek, TN samples collected in the southern Appalachian Basin provide an essentially continuous stratigraphic standard to which the Olive Hill, TN samples were compared. The presence of Palmatolepis bogartensis, Palniatolepis hassi aff., and several other zone defining conodonts suggest that the Dowelltown member is essentially uninterrupted. The absence of zone defining conodonts indicates the presence of an unconformity at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary and the occurrence of several hiatuses in the Gassaway Member of the Chattanooga Shale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEN, Amy

Department of Biology

THE EFFECT OF COLD TREATMENT ON SEED GERMINATION OF ALLIARIA OFFICIONALIS

(George Briggs)

 

I investigated how cold temperatures effect seed germination of Garlic mustard (Alliaria officionalis). Many seeds remain dormant for a period of time until they are stimulated to germinate by such factors as temperature, moisture, and sunlight. The Garlic mustard seeds are known to germinate in the fall and sometimes in the spring after a period of colder temperatures. I gathered and tested the viability of Garlic mustard seeds from Geneseo, NY and Bath, NY. The seeds were then tested with varying durations of cold treatment, lasting between 0 to 10 weeks. After I removed the seeds from a specific duration of cold treatment, I placed the seeds in a room temperature environment with an adequate moisture supply to observe for any signs of germination. Although 100 percent of the seeds were found to be viable (based on a tetrazolium test), only two seeds, out of 560 seeds tested, germinated. This leads me to the conclusion that some factor other than cold temperature causes Garlic mustard seeds to germinate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAFFREY, Andrew and Jim ROBY-BRANTLEY, Joseph BROWN Sean BURKE Andy CUNNINGHAM, Charlie ENGLEHART, Amy DALY, Brian DOBBS, Christine FOGARTY, Vito LABARBARA, Brian MCHALE, Tracy POTTER, Robert TALLMAN, and Alan WONDER

Department of Physics and Astronomy

PRELAUNCHSTATUS OF THE SUNY-GENESEO SPECTROPHOTOMETRY PAYLOAD FOR THE SPIRIT ROCKET

(David Meisel, James Boiani, and Clint Cross)

 

The SPIRIT (Student Projects Involving RocketInvestigation Techniques) daytime launch will take place from the NASA Wallops Flight Center on May 10-13, 1999. SUNY-Geneseo students have beenworking for the past 2.5 years on a payload instrument to make heightresolved measurements of the OH dayglow in the mesosphere. The propertiesof the instrumentation and the observations expected are presented alongwith some active demonstrations of the photodiode sensitivity and theflight path.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAFFREY, Andrew

Department of Mathematics

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF DIRECT AND INVERSE DIFFRACTION PROBLEMS

(Andrzej Kedzierawski)

 

Diffraction of waves is an important phenomenon in physical sciences and applied mathematics. Diffraction generally occurs when a propagating wave encounters an obstruction in its path and seemingly knows to bend around the obstacle. We present programs written in Maple that accurately simulate the nature of diffracted waves assuming the knowledge of incident waves and the obstacle. Such a problem is called the direct diffraction problem. Additionally, the inverse problem of determining the unknown obstacle for the knowledge of incident waves and resulting diffraction patterns is discussed mathematically and solved numerically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLEMENTS, Casey

Department of Biology

THE EFFECT OF NADPH OXIDASE INHIBITORS ON INTRACELLULAR FREE RADICAL CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN TUMOR CELLS

(Robert O'Donnell)

 

NADPH Oxidase inhibitors are drugs currently being investigated for their affects on cancer, atherosclerosis, and other maladies. Dr. O'Donnell's laboratory has been researching the drugs' chemotherapeutic potential with respect to cancer. While much evidence has been accumulated that some of the drugs do induce apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines, clarification the drugs' mechanism is key to more in depth research. Over the past year we have studied the effects of many NADPH Oxidase inhibitors, including Apocynin and Resveratrol, on free oxygen radical concentrations in tumor cells. We've used fluorescent dyes specific to reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH Oxidase. These results were quantified using various techniques including fluorescence microscopy, cytofluorescence plate assays, and flow cytometric analysis. These results were then compared to the previously observed cytotoxic effects of the drugs. It was found that the drugs that best inhibited the production of free radicals were also the drugs that proved most toxic. Furthermore, the concentrations of the drugs that inhibited free radical production also led to cell death. These are surprising results since free radical species are thought to have a deleterious effect on cellular processes.

 

 

 

 

DISPIGNA, Neil, POUNTAIN, David and SKOLNY, Raymond

Department of Computer Science

SIMULATIONS OF A NOVEL PARALLEL PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE FOR INNER PRODUCT COMPUTATIONS

(Rong Lin)

 

We present research work on simulations of a novel parallel processor architecture for inner product computations. The application specific processor has the following features: (1) It can be easily reconfigured for computing inner products of input arrays with four or more types of structures. Typically, each input array may contain 64 8-bit items, 16 16-bit items, 4 32-bit items, or 1 64-bit item, with items in 2’s complement or unsigned form; (2) It can be pipelined to produce inner products efficiently, which is useful for the construction of high-speed and low power matrix multipliers; (3) It has a compact VLSI area with very simple reconfigurable components. The processor mainly consists of an array of 8 x 8 or 4 x 4 simple multipliers plus two or three arrays of adders. The total amount of hardware is comparable to a single 64 x 64 array multiplier; (4) The whole network is reconfigured through using a few control bits for the desired computations, and the reconfiguration can be done dynamically; (5) The architecture is highly regular and modular, and most parts of the network are symmetric and repeatable. Our simulations have successfully illustrated the reconfigurable functionality of the processor.

 

 

 

ENGELHART, Charles

Department of Mathematics

NON-ADPATIVE BALANCE SCALES WITH ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION

(Anthony Macula)

 

Our objective was to create a non adaptive algorithm for using a balance scale to detect one positive object among some number of objects. We will also determine the nature of the defect(light or heavy) and check for and correct errors in the weightings. A ternary matrix, M, will be used to model the weightings. The result of all weightings will produce a vector, V, which when compared to each of the columns of M will correspond to exactly one column. Given n weightings one can identify (3n-1)/2-1 objects.

 

 

 

 

 

 

FITZGERALD, Ryan

Department of Physics and Astronomy

SIMULATION OF A PROTON POLARIMETER FOR 3HE(D,P)4HE

(Kurt Fletcher)

 

The 3He(d,p)4He reaction, an important reaction in nuclear fusion and in astrophysics, is dominated by the 3/2+ resonance mechanism near deuteron laboratory energy of 430 keV, however, the direct neutron transfer mechanism may also be significant.

In a 3He(d,p)4He polarization transfer experiment, a polarized beam of deuterons interacts with an unpolarized 3He target and the polarization of the outgoing protons is determined. Such a measurement would provide insight into the relative importance various reaction mechanisms. A proton polarimeter, based on p-4He elastic scattering, has been built and tested to measure the polarization of the outgoing protons from the reaction.

A Monte Carlo computer simulation of this polarimeter has been written to calibrate this device. The simulation is based on cross-section and polarization data for 4He(p,p)4He and on the geometry of the polarimeter. This simulation is used to determine the effective analyzing power for various experimental conditions and has been compared to experimental data obtained at Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab. The general trend in data is well represented by the simulation, but there is a discrepancy in the overall normalization. At present we are preparing a method for determining the uncertainty in the simulation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRANCY, Jackie and PILSKALNS, Ben

Department of Chemistry

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DELETIONS

(Wendy Pogozelski)

 

Although most people think of DNA as being in the cell nucleus, the mitochondria of cells also contain DNA. We are examining the mitochondrial DNA of Bloom Syndrome patients for a five-kilobase deletion in the DNA. If high levels of this deletion is found in Bloom Syndrome cells, we can hopefully begin to understand the mechanisms of this cancerous condition. We are using two techniques to measure deletion levels. The first is quantitative or competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) and the other is TaqMan-PCR or the 5'-Fluorogenic Nuclease Assay. Preliminary results do not indicate that Bloom Syndrome cells contain a higher level of deletions than normal cells. Related experiments with a patient afflicted with Pearson's syndrome, however, do indicate that these techniques show elevelated deletion levels for this disorder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRANCY, Jacquelyn

Department of Biology

CONSTRUCTION OF A GAD65-GFP FUSION PROTEIN

(David Martin)

 

Many experiments have been conducted which have determined that GAD65 is localized in the Golgi complex and microvesicles of non-neuronal cells. The targeting of GAD65 in neuronal tissue had previously been unexamined. For this purpose, a fusion protein was constructed containing the amino terminus of GAD65 (the presumed targeting region) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). This vector was used to transfect differentiated PC-12 cells. Using a gene gun, organotypic slices of rat hippocampus were also transfected with the GAD65-GFP construct. Fluorescence was detected throughout transfected cells, indicating that the amino terminus of GAD65 was responsible for targeting the fusion protein throughout the cytoplasm, including nerve terminals. Control experiments indicated that the intensity of green fluorescence throughout the cells was most likely caused by overexpression of the protein and diffusion throughout the cells.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FUSCHINO, Thea and PERICAK, Jason

Department of Biology

INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN HTB-4 AND HT-144 HUMAN TUMOR CELL LINES BY APOCYNIN AND RELATED CYTOTOXIC DRUGS

(Robert O'Donnell)

 

The drug apocynin has been shown to inhibit NADPH oxidase activity in human neutrophils and to cause cell death in human cancer cells. We initially investigated if the mechanism of cell death was by apoptosis. Using three commercially available assays for apoptosis, our results showed that apocynin and related compounds could induce apoptosis in a small, but significant portion of the cells. This connection between apoptosis and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, together with the ability of these drugs to cause apoptosis in cancer cells, are promising findings for the future theraputic treatment of cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

GALIOTO, Robert A.

Department of Biology

AEROTAXIS IN THE COLONIAL GREEN ALGA ASTREPHOMENE GUBERNACULIFERA

(Harold J. Hoops)

 

We are interested in looking for a possible chemotactic response of A. gubernaculifera toward O2 (aerotaxis). We used two different assays to test for aerotaxis. In the first assay we loaded optically flat capillaries with a cell culture and colonial positioning was monitored with respect to the air-media interface. In the second assay, a colony suspension was placed in an airtight plastic flask, and oxygen, air or helium bubbles were introduced at different portions of the flask. Accumulation was assayed after one hour. Trials were performed using one, two and three day old cultures. Results indicate that there is an aerotactic response to oxygen, and that this response changes dramatically as the culture ages. In one day old cultures, the colonies accumulate right up against the oxygen bubbles. Two day old cultures showed an colonial accumulation in a ring approximately 3 mm from the oxygen bubbles. Cultures that were three days old showed no accumulation near to, or avoidance of, the oxygen bubbles. Cultures of all ages showed no response to the helium bubbles. Colonial accumulation or lack of accumulation at or near the ends of capillaries was the same as found in the sealed chambers for all ages of the culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GOODEMOTE, Derek

Department of Physics and Astronomy

LABVIEW VISION SYSTEM TO MONITOR GENESEO VAN DE GRAAF

(Stephen Padalino and Ken Kinsey)

 

The Geneseo Nuclear Structure Laboratory operates a 2 MV Van De Graaf accelerator. A LabView data acquisition and control system has been designed and built and is currently monitoring critical accelerator systems. The first part of the project has been completed. A monitor and alarm system that checks the status of the accelerator and accelerator subsystems is operating. The system monitors; the accelerator, the analyzing magnet and diffusion pump coolant temperatures. It also displays the beam line vacuum pressures and accelerator operating parameters such as the corona current, terminal potential, slew rate, upcharge, quadrupole power supplies and NMR magnetic field strength. The monitoring and displays system parameters and notifies users with a series of visual and audible alarms allerting the users of conditions that are beyond allowed limits. The second part of the project is to have the computer intervene when a problem occurs and take action if the user is not present or does not respond to the alarm within a fixed period of time. This part of the projects requires that the computer software be modified to respond to alarms and actuate devices to eliminate the problem. Currently, our hardware has been modified to allow local, remote and computer control of the beam line valves and we are planning to modify vacuum pump hardware to allow similar control. It is our goal to design a system that can ensure the safe operation of the accelerator and react quickly to coolant failures, vacuum breeches, and power outages.

 

 

 

 

 

HUANG, Shan-Fu

Department of Biology

CYTOTOXICITY OF APOCYNIN AND RELATED DRUGS ON HUMAN TUMOR CELLS GROWN IN 1% AND 20% SERUM

(Robert W. O'Donnell)

 

Apocynin and related drugs were tested for their cytotoxicity on human tumor cells growing at optimal and suboptimal serum concentrations. HT29 cells, a human colon cancer cell line, were growing in 20% and 1% serum concentration in the presence of successive dilutions of Apocynin, "impure dimer", Resveratrol dimer, 4-Nitroguaicol, Vanillic acid, and 2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenol. The growth was assessed by either the SRB or the Cytquant assays. In each experiment, the cells were tested with serial dilutions of drug under both serum concentrations. The cells were more sensitive to the drugs at the low serum concentration. In one experiment, four related drugs were tested at 1% serum only and showed that 2-Methoxy-4-Methylphenol was most cytotoxic. Cells grown in 1% serum concentration appear to be a very effective way of screening related compounds for their cytotoxicity effects on tumor cells. Current experiment are investigating whether these cells are undergoing more apoptosis in 1% serum.

 

 

 

HUGHES, Chambers

Department of Chemistry

WINE--DRINK IT!

(David Johnson)

 

The oxidative dimerization chemistry of resveratrol, a trans-stilbene synthesized by grapes, was studied. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase, resveratrol dimerized to form a trans-resveratrol dehydrodimer that was purified by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The dimer is interesting because it may be the active form of resveratrol as an atherosclerotic drug.

 

 

 

 

 

 

HUSON, Sarah

Department of Geological Sciences

REGIONAL DRAINAGE REVERSAL ON THE COLORADO PLATEAU IN WESTERN ARIZONA

(Richard Young)

 

The southwest flowing drainage of the Colorado River system in Arizona is superimposed upon an older northward flowing drainage system of Cretaceous age. Drainage reversal occurred 10 to 15 million years ago. Evidence for this reversal has been documented by younger tributaries headwardly eroding (lengthening) and intercepting (capturing) the surviving remnants of older canyons of ancient, north flowing streams. This reversal of streams (or "piracy") produces tributaries with "fish hook" patterns. Normal stream patterns resemble the veins on a leaf (a "dendritic" pattern). Additional evidence for regional drainage reversal is supported by block faulting, which occurred during a rifting (extensional) event 10 to 15 million years ago. These faults created a low elevation route that allowed drainage to flow west to the Pacific Ocean. One of the most extensive stream capture areas is associated with the Colorado River and the Hurricane Fault Zone located on the Colorado Plateau in Western Arizona. It demonstrates that the topographic slope was opposite to that of the present and that the Hurricane Fault was formerly a "reverse" fault (upthrown side to the west), as compared with its most recent movements (downthrown side to the west).

 

 

 

 

 

 

JONES, Travis

Department of Mathematics

THE NATURE OF MATHEMATICS: PI IN THE SKY OR PI IN THE FACE?

(Chris Leary)

 

The nature of mathematical truth has been vehemently argued about for years, and several contrasting philosophies have shared popularity over time. One of the most prominent of these schools of thought, Platonism, holds that mathematical entities are eternal, resting outside the realms of space and time. Currently, the strongest theories challenging Platonism are various forms of Humanism, which see mathematics as a human activity--a creation rather than a discovery. While the foundations of a Platonic theory have undeniable problems, a strict Humanism is likewise unacceptable. A human created mathematics is very appealing indeed; however, it cannot adequately explain phenomena such as Pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. A middle ground between the two extremes (Platonism and Humanism) is outlined.

 

 

 

 

 

 

JULIAN, Siobhan

Department of Chemistry

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SUBSTITUTED DIOXIRANE SYNTHESIS

(Bob Rosenberg)

 

Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) has been found to convert alkenes to epoxides, replacing the conventional reagent, McPBA. The methyl groups of DMDO were replaced with the following substituents: H, CH3, NH2, OH, and F. The energy of the carbonyl (XYCO) to dioxirane (XYCO2) reaction (where X=Y=CH3 in DMDO) was measured using computational analysis (Gaussian 94). This information could be used to determine alternate, synthetic reagents for potential use in the creation of epoxides.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KLUS, Jeffrey

Department of Mathematics

EXPLORATIONS IN THE HYPERBOLIC PLANE

(Edward Wallace)

 

In Euclidean geometry, the most commonly known system of geometry, a very interesting property has been proven to be common among all triangles. For every triangle, there exists a line that contains three major points of concurrence for that triangle (the centroid, orthocenter, and circumcenter). This line is called the Euler line. This talk will focus on whether or not the Euler line exists in Hyperbolic geometry, an alternate system of geometry. The existence of the Euler line has been researched in both the Poincare disk and half-plane models for hyperbolic geometry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAWNICZAK, Cynthia and LIEBERT, Heidi

Department of Chemistry

COMPETITION REDUCTIONS BETWEEN 2-X-4-TERT-BUTYLCYCLOHEX-ANONE AND 4-TERT-BUTYLCYCLOHEXANONE

(Robert Rosenberg)

 

The purpose of this research is to establish the effect of substituents on the rate of reduction in 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone. The competitive reduction rates were investigated for the reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone versus cis-2-F-4-tert-butylcyclohexanone, cis-2-Cl-4-tert-butylcyclohexanone, cis-2-Br-4-tert-butylcyclohex-anone, cis,cis-2,6-dibromo-4-tert-butylcyclohexanone, and cis-2-OMe-4-tert-butylcyclo-hexanone. Trials were performed by varying the amount of LiAlH4 used. The products were analysed using NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and/or gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Electronegative substituents decrease axial attack of the hydride and increase equatorial attack.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAWNICZAK, Cynthia

Department of Chemistry

GC/MS AND HPLC TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

(James Boiani)

 

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potential environmental contaminants that can be toxic to organisms. Two techniques were analyzed to detect PAHs. GC/MS was used to detect some PAHs in aqueous solutions for use in drinking water evaluation. Detection limits were found and compared with EPA values. HPLC was used to detect and identify PAHs in cigarette smoke.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MULVEY, Bridget

Department of Geological Sciences

PREFERRED ORIENTATION OF LIGULID BRACHIOPODS IN THE UPPER HANOVER SHALE OF WESTERN NEW YORK

(D. Jeffrey Over)

 

The Hanover Shale Member of the Java Formation was deposited during Late Devonian time, approximately 374 million years ago. The Hanover Shale is found in New York State and composed primarily of green-gray mudstone to shale with interbedded thin black shale layers. Overall, the unit contains few shelly fossils, but there is a unique layer of abundant shelly fosils, called brachiopods, in the upper part of the unit. The brachiopod bed was sampled at Glade Creek of western New York. The fossils appear to have a preferred orientation, and the orientation of lingulid brachiopods was measured. The lingulids present in the bed have a preferred orientation of NW-SE. This would locate the Devonian shoreline to the southeast, trending NE-SW.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEUBERG, Julie and FALLER, Albert

Department of Chemistry

THE CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE H/D EXCHANGE REACTION OF AN ESTER

(Bob Rosenberg)

 

The reaction being studied is the H/D exchange of an ester that involves diastereomeric transition states. Confirmational analysis was used to calculate the potential energy surface of the enolate of the ester. The analysis was performed to determine the lowest energy conformations of the ester, the enolate, and the transition states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NYQUIST, Joel and OLLIVER, Heather

Department of Physics and Astronomy

ALUMINUM ACTIVATION TO DETERMINE NEUTRON YIELD OF D-T FUSION REACTIONS

(Stephen Padalino and Kurt Fletcher)

 

Dr.Vladimir Glebov and Nancy Rogers,

Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester

 

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester has been conducting experiments using laser induced nuclear fusion as a possible alternative energy source. An important metric used in this research is the measure of the neutron yield. The absolute neutron yield of an inertially confined fusion reaction can be found using aluminum activation. An aluminum sample is placed near the target where 14.1 MeV neutrons emitted from the T(d,n) fusion reaction cause the aluminum to become activated and consequently to emit gamma rays. Neutron activation of aluminum occurs by several neutron reactions. Four such reactions are described: 27Al + n = 28Al, 27Al(n,a )24Na, 27Al(n,2n)26Al and 27Al(n,p)27Mg. The radioactive nuclei 28Al, 24Na, and 27Mg, which are produced via the 27Al + n = 28Al, 27Al(n,a )24Na and 27Al(n,p)27Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of 28Si, 24Mg and 27Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states. Once activated, the sample is removed from the reaction area where a High Purity Germanium Detector can then count the gamma rays emitted by the sample. The number of gamma rays counted is directly related to the neutron yield of the fusion reaction. The results of this method are compared to other neutron diagnostic methods in an overall effort to determine the efficiency of each fusion reaction.

 

*Funded in part by the Department of Energy

 

 

 

OLLIVER, Heather and NYQUIST, Joel

Department of Physics and Astronomy

CARBON ACTIVATION USING HIGH ENERGY NEUTRONS

(Stephen Padalino and Kurt Fletcher)

 

Scott Lassell, Cornell University, Ward Reactor Laboratory

Radha Bahukutumbi, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester

 

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester has been conducting experiments using laser induced nuclear fusion as a possible alternative energy source. The Ariel density of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reaction can be determined by calculating the ratio of the tertiary neutron yield to the primary neutron yield. During an ICF reaction, 14.1 MeV neutrons emitted from the T(d,n) fusion reaction strike fuel deuterons causing them to accelerate. These deuterons then collide with tritium fuel to produce tertiary T(d,n) reactions that produce high energy neutrons in the range of 18 to 30 MeV. A pure carbon sample is placed near the reaction where it becomes activated through the 12C(n,2n)11C reaction which has a high neutron threshold and can not be activated by the primary neutrons. The 11C consequently beta decays by emitting positrons. Once activated, the sample is removed from the reaction area. High Purity Germanium Detectors or NaI detectors can then count, in coincidence, the back to back 511 keV gamma rays emitted from the positron annihilation. The number of gamma rays counted is directly related to the tertiary neutron yield of the fusion reaction. The chief concern of using this method arises from contamination of the graphite with materials that will be activated by the primary neutrons, such as copper. These contaminants have been investigated through the use of trace elemental analysis methods at the Cornell Research reactor.

 

*Funded in part by the Department of Energy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RANDALL, Christopher

Department of Physics and Astronomy

CALIBRATION OF A PLASMA CALORIMETER USING A 2 MV VAN DE GRAAFF ACCELERATOR

(Charlie Freeman)

 

The Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE) is conducting experiments in inertial confinement fusion. A plasma calorimeter is one of the many nuclear diagnostics used at the LLE to study the induced fusion reactions. The calorimeter consists of two 6 micron thick tantalum foils connected to thermocouples and a copper reference plate. The calorimeter has been calibrated using proton beams of several hundred keV from the 2MV Van de Graaff accelerator located at the Geneseo Nuclear Structure Laboratory (GNSL). The calorimeter signals were recorded and analyzed using the LabVIEW interface program. In this presentation we report on the preliminary data obtained at the GNSL and describe plans for future experiments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

RODRIGUEZ, Jason

Department of Biology

ALKALINE COMET ASSAY IN DETERMINING GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NADPH OXIDASE INHIBITORS

(Robert O'Donnell)

 

Aromatic NADPH oxidase inhibitors have been shown to reduce the level of atherosclerosis and possibly be effective as an anticancer agent. We have chosen the Alkaline Comet Assay to elucidate possible genotoxic affects by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, Resveratrol and it's associated dimer form, on a human bladder cancer cell line (HTB4). HTB4 cells that have been exposed to the inhibitor, UV light (used as a positive control), and DMSO (used as a negative control) were solidified in an agarose solution on a microscope slide. An alkaline lysis solution is then applied followed by electrophoresis of the exposed nuclei. Fluorescent staining and visualization with a fluorescent microscope can allow for characterization of any DNA damage that has occurred. Single cells that have a high degree of damage will appear to form a "comet", indicative of a damaged nucleus with DNA strand breaks. Analysis of the comets was achieved through classification of the length of the comet "tail" and quantification of comets in all exposure treatments. Current results with this assay indicate HTB4 cells to have a high amount of DNA damage when exposed to UV light, while cells that were exposed to Resveratrol dimer have a low amount of genotoxicity, similar to that of the DMSO control. Therefore, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, the Resveratrol dimer form does not contribute any genotoxic effect in cell death of HTB4 cell line.

 

 

 

 

ROTONDO, Kristina

Department of Geological Sciences

UPPER DEVONIAN LINGULID BRACHIOPODS FROM THE CHATTA-NOOGA SHALE

(D. Jeffrey Over and Richard Hatheway)

 

The phylum Brachiopoda is divided into two classes, Articulata and Inarticulata. Inarticulata is subdivided into four orders; the focus of this study is on the order Lingulida. Lingulid brachiopods are the most abundant macrofossils in the Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale, Tennessee. Size and spatial distribution of lingulids may be affected by factors such as lithology and depositional setting. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) detector were used to analyze the samples and determine substrate conditions such as grain size and chemical composition of the shale. The levels of dissolved oxygen, burial rates, and energy of the environment can be approximated by the substrate conditions and correlated to the abundance and size of lingulids throughout the section.

 

 

 

 

SCHWARTZ, Brook and THOMPSON, Sarah

Department of Physics and Astronomy

CR-39 IN A CHARGED PARTICLE SPECTROMETER AS A DIAGNOSTIC FOR INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION

(Stephen Padalino)

 

Jason Law, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester

Dr. Richard Petrasso, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

 

The purpose of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester is to study Laser driven inertial confinement fusion reactions. One of the many nuclear diagnostics used to examine these reactions is the charged particle spectrometer. The magnetic spectrometer is designed to detect the mass and energy of charged particles produced by either d-d or d-t reactions during the 1 nano-second burn time. As the charged reaction products enter the spectrometer they are bent by its magnetic field through various paths and thus directed toward and detected by an array of CR-39 track emulsions. Upon impact with the emulsion, the particles produce holes in the CR-39. The hole diameter and depth is directly related to the mass and energy of the incident particle. The 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at SUNY Geneseo was used to calibrate the track diameter and hole depth to the corresponding mass and energy. Protons of known energy, from 400 to 1000 KeV, were elastically scattered off gold foil such that they scattered on to CR-39 to calibrate proton tracks. Similarly, using the radioactive isotope AM241, 5.44 MeV alpha particles were directed toward the CR-39 and the resulting hole depth and diameter were used to calibrate alpha tracks.

 

*Funded in part by the Department of Energy

 

 

 

SCOTT, Christine

Department of Biology

THE ROLE OF PHOTOPIGMENT-BASED MAGNETORECEPTORS ON ORIENTATION OF BOBOLINK

(Robert Beason)

 

There are thought to be two mechanisms involved in magentic transductions: magnetic-based magnetoreceptors and photopigment-based magnetoreceptors. Magnetite-based receptors have received the greatest amount of attention. Experimenters have found that there is a high concentration of magnetite within tissues of the ethmoid region of the skull in some birds and fish. Researchers have proposed that these magnetite-based receptors transduce information from the geomagnetic field, which helps to establish a map system in animals. Photo-pigment-based, the other mechanism, are found in the cone and rod cells of the retina. Researchers have proposed that these receptors also transduce information. However, instead of acting like a map, they act as a compass, which gives an animal orientational information during migration.

Discovering the role of the photopigment-based receptor was the focus of this experiment. Our study species was the bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorous). Initially, the birds were selected based on their activity during a white light test period. Selected birds where exposed to three different wavelengths of monochromatic light (450, 585, 600 nm) for a five day test period per wavelength. Each day, the birds' mean direction was recorded and compared to baseline data to see if the different wavelengths of light had an effect on the birds' orientational direction. (Baseline was taken by recording the birds' mean direction under white light.) When the birds were tested under the wavelength of 450 nm, no significant shift in direction was found. However, when tested under 585 nm of light, the birds exhibited an axially bimodal response at 174 -354 that was significantly different than their mean direction recorded during baseline. Under 600 nm, the birds exhibited a mean orientation of 53 counter-clockwise. Moreover, there may be a sequencing effect involved in the shift in directions.

Magnetic orientation in bobolinks appears to be influenced by wavelengths of light. This may be an effect on the magnetic compass or some other generalized effect. The present data does not allow to distinguish this point.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHELLEY, Andrea L.

Department of Biology

THE MECHANISM OF PHOTOTAXIC STEERING IN VOLVOX SECTION VOLVOX

(Harold J. Hoops)

 

There are two contrasting models that could explain phototactic steering in Volvox spheroids. In one model (the variable frequency model), the turning results from a change in beat frequency of the flagella in cells exposed to abrupt changes in light intensity. The opposing model (the variable direction model) proposes that the spheroid turns because of a change in beat direction of the flagella after such changes. If turning is caused by a change in beat frequency, both progression and rotation rates will change in the same direction and magnitude after step-up or step-down stimuli. If turning is caused by a change in beat direction, a decreased rate of progression will accompany an increased rate of rotation and vice versa. Our lab has previously shown that the variable frequency model describes phototactic steering in V. carteri. However, there is some evidence that species in the Volvox section of the genus may use the variable direction strategy instead. Using videomicroscopy, we are presently testing the responses of two strains of V. rousseletii and one strain of V. globator to a 10x step-up stimulus, and will compare the kinetics of the responses against these two models.

 

 

 

 

SIMMONS, Laura M.

Department of Biology

THE RATE AND DIRECTION OF FLUID FLOW AROUND SWIMMING VOLVOX CARTERI SPHEROIDS

(Harold J. Hoops)

 

The multicellular alga Volvox is a hollow spheroid of biflagellate cells. These cells are embedded in a matrix such that their flagellar movements propel the spheroid forward while rotating. The precise way in which the flagellar movements of hundreds of cells produce both forward and rotational propulsion of the colony is still unanswered. In an attempt to address this question, we are studying the rate and direction of fluid flow around individual, free-swimming colonies. We are using videomicroscopy to document the positions of fluorescent beads as the Volvox spheroid moves through them. By plotting the flow of discrete beads, we are able to determine both the rate and direction of fluid flow at various distances from the spheroid. Our results will give us information about the overall movement of the sphere, but will also contain information about fluid flow over different portions on the spheroid. The apparent motion of the beads is very dependent on the frame of reference used. When bead position is referenced to the passing spheroid, the beads appear to move very rapidly over its surface. However, if bead position is compared to the beads not affected by the movement of the Volvox, the apparent movement of the beads is much more modest. These results are consistent with those expected for motility in a microorganism with a small Reynolds number.

 

 

 

STANTON, Greg

Department of Mathematics

THE (NON)EXISTANCE OF THE NINE POINT CIRCLE IN HYPERBOLIC GEOMETRY

(Edward Wallace)

 

The basis for Euclidean geometry is the Euclidean parallel postulate which states that there is exactly one line parallel to any given line. This is the geometry that most of us are familiar with from high school. A special circle can be assosiated with any triangle in Euclidean geometry. The circle is called the nine point circle because nine points assosiated with the triangle lie on the circle. The points include the midpoints of each side of the triangle, the feet of each of the altitudes of the triangle, and the midpoint of each segment joining a vertice with the orthocenter of the triangle. In hyperbolic geometry there are at least two lines which are parallel to any given line. Henri Poincare created a model for hyperbolic geometry in the Euclidean plane. This talk will use Poincare's model to investigate the existance of the nine point circle in hyperbolic space.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THOMAN, Jill

Department of Chemistry

ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA USING LONG-PCR

(Wendy Pogozelski)

 

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to have "hotspots" for deletion. A deletion of 4kb (called the "common deletion" has been detected in the mtDNA of lymphoblast cells cultured from a patient with the disease Bloom Syndrome (BS) as well as mtDNA from a host of other individuals with various neurological and muscular disorders. We have been looking at BS mtDNA to determine if other deletions exist as well. For this purpose, we have been using a technique called "Long PCR" in which an enzyme called Elongase amplifies a region of mtDNA that is much longer than that usually produced by conventional amplification. We have then been treating this DNA with restriction enzymes and looking at the results by gel electrophoresis to determine if additional deletions exist.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THOMPSON, Sarah and SCHWARTZ, Brook

Department of Physics and Astronomy

THE ASSOCIATED PARTICLE METHOD

(Stephen Padalino and Kurt Fletcher)

 

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is investigating laser induced Inertial Confinement Fusion. In order to understand the dynamics of the fusion plasma process, LLE uses calibrated neutron detectors to determine the neutron yield produced by DD and DT thermonuclear reactions. Geneseo's Nuclear Structure Laboratory (GNSL), has undertaken the calibration of these detectors for LLE. By using the associated particle method, the energy response and the efficiency of the detectors has been determined. The associated particle method uses the nuclear reaction d(d,n)3He @ 300 and 500 keV to produce 3He particles and neutrons which are measured in coincidence. The d(d,n)3He reaction was created using GNSL's two million volt Van de Graaff accelerator. By comparing the number coincident counts detected between the neutron detector and the counts detected by the charged particle detector, the efficiency of the neutron detectors was determined. Since the energy of the neutrons produced by d(d,n)3He is strictly dictated by energy and momentum conservation laws, the response of the neutron detector was also determined by investigating.

 

*Funded in part by the Department of Energy

 

 

 

THORN, Paul

Department of Biology

EFFECTS OF RAPID CLIMATE CHANGE ON VEGETATION, LAKE OF THE CLOUDS, NEW HAMPSHIRE

(Ray Spear)

 

This project examines vegetation changes between 12,000-10,000 years ago in the mountains of New Hampshire following the retreat of the glaciers. Two abrupt climatic events occurred during this period, the Killarney Oscillation (KO) and the Younger Dryas (YD). The Killarny Oscillation was a 300 year cold episode that showed a temperature drop of a few degrees centigrade. It occurred between 11,200-10,900 years ago. The Younger Dryas occurred between 10,700-10,000 years ago and was characterized by a temperature drop of as much as 10 degrees centigrade. The paleoecological study site for this project is Lake of the Clouds 2 km southeast of the summit of Mt. Washington. The pond is located at an elevation of 1542m (5025 ft). Due to its high elevation and the severe weather conditions on Mt. Washington, the vegetation in the surrounding watershed is very sensitive to climate change. The depth of the pond is roughly 2 meters, and the sediment core taken from the pond measures 3.2 meters. Substantial drops in organic matter in the sediment occur during the KO and YD cold periods. Percentage of organic matter was measured from weight of sediments lost on ignition. Pollen samples extracted from the sediment cores record changes in vegetation diversity and abundance. The response of the vegetation to these abrupt short-term climatic episodes can serve as a model for the effects of global warming.

 

 

 

VOGT, Steve and HAUSER, Trisha

Department of Physics and Astronomy

A LABVIEW BASED DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS PACKAGE FOR PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS

(Kurt Fletcher, Ken Kinsey, Jeremy Grace (Eastman Kodak))

 

Plasmas are used to modify the surfaces of substrates in industrial processes, including the manufacturing of photographic film. Researchers at Eastman Kodak's vacuum coating laboratory are interested in characterizing such plasmas using data acquired from an ion flux probe. There are two major goals for our project. The first is to increase the efficiency of data acquisition methods by using a LabVIEW-based application that uses a graphical programming language for data acquisition, instrument control, and analysis. The second goal is to improve the analysis of the data to determine the current vs. voltage curve and deduce the microscopic characteristics of the plasmas, such as the ion density and ion temperature. This analysis will also be a part of the LabVIEW package, and will enable real-time measurement of plasma properties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WAKEMAN, Thomas

Department of Physics and Astronomy

SYMMETRY AND CONSERVATION LAWS

(Savi Iyer)

 

There is an elegant and fundamental relationship between symmetry and conservation laws that goes by the name Noether’s Theorem. We will show how this works in the simple case where rotational symmetry leads to the conservation of angular momentum. This principle plays an important role in particle physics and in our understanding of the fundamental constituents of all matter. Particles can be organized into groups by properties such as spin, isospin, etc. By looking for patterns in this manner, new particles, indeed new physics, can be predicted and confirmed experimentally.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WIDJAJA, Armand and COCINA, Amy E.

Department of Biology

THE MECHANISM OF CHEMOACCUMULATION IN ASTREPHOMENE GUBERNACULIFERA, A COLONIAL GREEN ALGA

(Harold J. Hoops)

 

We previously showed that Astrephomene gubernaculifera is capable of chemo-accumulation toward acetate and propionate. The mechanism of chemoaccumulation, however, is unclear. For example, the colonies might sense a chemical gradient and alter their steering patterns to swim in the direction of increasing chemical concentration. However, some alternative models could explain chemoaccumulation without requiring the alga to determine the spatial acetate gradient. We are using video-microscopy to analyze the responses of A. gubernaculifera towards acetate. Colonies are suspended in growth media lacking acetate and placed in a mini-aquarium. A small volume of acetate colored with non-toxic, non-chemoattractive dye is administered with a micropipette. After a few minutes, colonies accumulate in a pool around the added acetate. A ring, virtually absent of algae, develops around this accumulation. In many instances, colonies were found to exit the area of maximum accumulation, turn, and head back into the area of high acetate concentration. After five to eight minutes, the accumulation dissolves into patches of colony aggregates of about 5-12 colonies per aggregate. Colonies occasionally leave one patch and join with another. The interaction that leads to this behavior is unknown. The kinetics of these responses will be used to test alternative models for chemoaccumulation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WOOD, Lisa

Department of Mathematics

SOME POLYNOMIAL IDENTITIES IN SEMIRINGS

(Chris Leary)

 

In a free commutative semiring we have chacterized the equivalence classes of polynomials in N[T] under the equivalence relation generated by the equation T = T2 + 2. We use the assumption T = T2 + 2 to reduce polynomials into the form aT3 + bT2 + c with non-negatve integer coefficients such that either at least one coefficient zero, a=b=1<c, or a,b<>0 and c<4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ZERRAHN, Joanne

Department of Chemistry

DEVELOPMENT OF A CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS METHOD INCORPORATING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRANS-RESVERATROL IN WINES

(James Boiani)

 

The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient method for the analysis of trans-Resveratrol in wine samples by means of Capillary Electrophoresis. The compound trans-resveratrol has been one of the compounds linked to reducing the incidence of heart disease and cancer among people with high fat and meat diets, known as the 'French Paradox'. In order to evaluate the actual effects of trans-resveratrol in wines properly, we must develop a technique which can isolate and quantify it efficiently. Current methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry offer accurate results, but the analysis often takes a relatively long time. If a Capillary Electrophoresis method could be perfected for the analysis of trans-resveratrol, more wine samples could be studied in the time frame and thus more information could be provided for futher research.