ABSTRACTS 2001

 

ABBENE, Irene; BLACK, Victoria; BRILL, Amanda; and CASTLE, Jennifer

Department of Geological Sciences

GEOLOGY OF SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND

(Amy Sheldon, Richard Hatheway, and D. Jeff Over)

In January 2001, members of the Geology Department collected rock samples for analysis from different locations on South Island, New Zealand. The most prominent geologic feature in New Zealand is the Alpine Fault, which trends in a southwesternly direction on the western side of South Island and separates the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Rocks found along the fault are metamorphosed due to pressure and strain along the fault. Samples collected along the fault show a particular mineral assemblage and structure characteristic of high-grade metamorphism along a fault. Rock samples collected at Lindis Pass southeast of the fault consist of schistose rocks metamorphosed from a parent rock of interspersed silt and clay layers, which may represent part of a Bouma Sequence.

In addition, rock samples were collected at d'Urville Island, off the northern coast of South Island. These samples consist of ultramafic crustal material and represent part of an ophiolite belt that was obducted onto the Pacific plate from the Australian plate. The material was heavily fractured and contained numerous xenoliths.

Another feature of geologic interest is the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Woodside Creek, New Zealand. This boundary represents one of the greatest extinction events in Earth's history. The boundary consists of a clay layer that overlies a thick bedded Cretaceous bio-wackestone and underlies a thin bedded Tertiary bio-mudstone. Samples were collected above and below the boundary for analysis. They show that species diversity and size of foraminifera in the Tertiary layer are greatly reduced as compared to those in the Cretaceous layer.

(Poster Presentation)

 

AMEY, Suzanne

Department of Biology

SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN TUMOR CELLS: THE FUNCTION OF RHO GTPASES

(Robert O'Donnell)

To explore the effect of 4-Aminoguaicol (4-AG) on HTB4 and Line 1 cells, CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assays were performed. An initial drug concentration of 2.5 mM was diluted down a 96 well plate to concentrations of 1/2^n-1 of the initial (where n is the column number). These assays revealed that the percent of control growth decreased as the log10 [4-AG] increased. Therefore, 4-AG has a negative effect on the growth of both HTB4 and Line 1 cells. A protein analysis of control and drug treated cells was then performed. Both cell lines were treated with 0.625 mM 4-AG for 3 hours, and 200 microliter aliquots of both drug treated and control cells were made. SDS PAGE was then performed using drug treated aliquots, control cell aliquots, and Bio-Rad molecular weight markers. A Bio-Rad Multi-Analyst was used to analyze the protein content of the gel. This revealed that HTB4 drug treated cells differed most from HTB4 control cells in proteins near 114 kb and 54 kb. Line 1 drug treated cells differed from Line 1 control cells in proteins near 114 kb, 54kb, and 28 kb. Exact protein differences are yet to be determined. Western Blots are under way to determine if these cells contain the protein Rho, a small GTPase involved in cell motility, survival, and proliferation.

(Oral Presentation)

 

BECK, Denise

Department of Physics and Astronomy

SEEKING AN ATOMIC-LEVL UNDERSTANDING OF ATOMIC CLUSTER INTERACTIONS

(James Mclean)

The thermodynamic Gibbs-Thomson effect says that when a condensed phase and a vapor phase are in contact, the equilibrium density of the vapor depends on the curvature of the phase interface. One type of system to which this relationship applies is a surface with clusters of atoms (the condensed phase) and diffusing atoms (the vapor phase). However, the relationship between thermodynamic effects and the microscopic dynamics on surfaces is not well understood. A Dynamic Monte Carlo simulation was used to investigate the cluster-vapor interface as it varied in curvature. The program simulated a single layer 'island' of atoms on a lattice of possible sites. The atoms are then allowed to move between sites. The likelihood of an atom moving depends on its local configuration (i.e., how many neighbors it has). The program allowed the atoms to move for a simulated time of 1.6 milliseconds and the positions of the atoms were recorded at intervals of 0.5 microseconds. Once all of that data is collected, graphs of populations of local configurations as a function of island radius will be created. These findings will then be compared to thermodynamic predictions.

(Poster Presentation)

 

BICKNELL, Erin

Department of Mathematics

LOOKING TO MAKE SOME MONEY?

(Caroline Haddad)

How do professional managers of stock portfolios determine which investments to make? Investors are concerned about the expected return and the risk associated with these investments, so the manager must find the optimal trade-off between these two factors. Harry Markowitz presented an interesting application of quadratic programming to find this optimal trade-off which helped him win the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1990. My poster will demonstrate how nonlinear programming is used in this area of financial analysis.

(Poster Presentation)

 

BORN, Daniel and VALITES, Mark

Department of Computer Science

3D VISUALIZATION OF ION BEAMS

(Doug Baldwin and Stephen Padalino)

The SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) program is a tool that is widely used among Physicists to obtain simulated experimental data. The program simulates the firing of ions into layers of matter, with the layers varying in composition and thickness. The program generates all of the raw data necessary for a full three dimensional simulation, but only has the ability to show two dimensional representations of the data. Our project uses the raw data generated by SRIM, and provides an interactive environment that allows the user to explore a three dimensional model.

Our program is implemented using the C++ programming language, and the OpenGL graphics library. OpenGL provides functions for drawing geometric primitives, such as points, lines, and polygons. The programmer can use these primitives to build more complex images. Our program will allow the user to view the model at any angle. It also highlights certain "hotspots", i.e, areas with a large concentration of ions and energy.

(Poster Presentation)

 

BRILL, Amanda

Department of Geological Sciences

CONODONTS OF THE WILLIAMSBURGH BED, WEST RIVER SHALE, UPPER DEVONIAN

(D. Jeffrey Over)

The Williamsburgh Bed is a unit within the West River Shale of the Genesee Group that includes, in ascending order, the Geneseo Shale, Penn Yan Shale, Genundewa Limestone, and West River Shale. The base of the Middlesex Shale of the Sonyea Formation overlies the West River Shale.

The Williamsburgh Bed, which is rich in conodonts, carbonized wood, and pyrite, represents a disconformity, or time of non-sedimentation, within the Upper Devonian. It appears 2.2 m below the base of the Middlesex at Beard's Creek in Leicester as a carbonate lag bed, at the Williamsburgh Ravine about 13 ft below the Middlesex as a thin limestone bed, and as a concretionary zone 1.8m below the base of the Middlesex at"KB" Creek and 2.7m below the base of the Middlesex at Mill Gully. Due to its differing appearance, the unit has been mapped by correlating conodonts from each section. The conodont assemblages can be correlated to similar assemblages in different localities. Over 800 conodonts have been collected and processed. Some identified species include Ancyrodella rugosa, A. alata, , A. rotundiloba, A. recta, A. triangulata, Angulodus demissus, Synprioniodina alternata, Spathognathus semialteranans, Lonchodinia clavata, Bryantodus tortus, Prioniodina dialata, Polygnathus dengleri and Polygnathus sp. A.

(Oral Presentation)

 

BURKE, Sean and WHITE, Brian

Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry

AUTOMATING THE CR-39 ETCH PROCESS

(Dave Geiger and Steve Padalino)

CR-39 is a form of plastic used to monitor the progress of ICF reactions. Exposing this plastic to high-yield reactions pocks the surface with holes smaller than 10nm in diameter. After exposure, the plastic must be etched in a process analogous to the development of photographic film. The process begins when the exposed plastic is placed in an etching solution of 6M NaOH. The bath's temperature and the length of time that it is submerged determine the amount of CR-39 etched. We hope to automate this process using an XY positioning table and some simple household items. Our presentation will detail recent developments in this project and our plans for the future.

Research funded in part by the Department of Energy.

(Oral Presentation)

 

CLADER, Chris and PILECKI, Alan John

Department of Computer Science

THE SIMULATION OF A RECONFIGURABLE MATRIX MULTIPLIER ARCHITECTURE

(Ron Lin)

The research work presents an efficient simulation of the novel reconfiguable matrix multiplier architecture. It involves simulation modeling, design and JAVA program implementation. The processor simulated can be easily reconfigured to trade bitwidth for matrix size, thus maximizing the utilization of available hardware. Specifically, it can be used to compute the product of matrices Xnxk and Ykxm for any integers n, k, m and any item precision b (ranging from 4 to 64 bits) through run-time circuit reconfiguration. The simulation program has verified the functionality of the processor architecture.

As a typical example, the hardware equivalent to one 64 x 64 bit high precision multiplier in the system can be directly reconfigured to produce the product of two matrices X8x8 and Y8x8 of 8-bit items in 9 pipeline cycles, which would require 512 multiplications (done by large multipliers) in a non-reconfigurable high precision system. The simulation has illustrated the superiority of the architecture.

Given an input stream of h x h matrix pairs with b-bit items, the processor, called matrix multiplier of size s (note s=hb), may consist of an array of square(s/m) m x m small multipliers, a few arrays of adders each adding three numbers, an array of accumulators and corresponding simple reconfiguration switches. The simulation focus is on the most general case of m=4. To compute the product of Xnxk and Ykxm of item precision b on the proposed processor of size s we only need to partition Xnxk and Ykxm into s/b x s/b sub-matrices, reconfigure the processor according to the values of s (fixed) and b (input parameter), compute the products of sub-matrices, and accumulate them for the desired result in pipelined fashion. The exploring, modeling and analysis of the novel computing mechanism have always been the major tasks of the research.

(Oral Presentation)

 

CUNNINGHAM, Andrew

Department of Physics and Astronomy

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTER CONTROLLED MOVEABLE BEAM COLLIMATOR

(Charlie Freeman and Stephen Padalino)

A computer controlled, remotely operable moveable beam collimator has been built for the SUNY Geneseo Van de Graaff particle accelerator. The beam stop will be used to focus the proton beam produced by the accelerator onto a plasma calorimeter detection foil. This focused beam is necessary to reliably calibrate the response of the calorimeter as a function of the incident energy deposited on the foil surface. The beam collimator consists of a collimating plate that can move along a horizontal track. The position of the beam stop is controlled remotely using a stepping motor and the Lab View automation and control package. A Lab View based graphical user interface has been implemented to monitor the position of the beam collimator in real time.

(Oral Presentation)

 

CURTISS, Chris and NEUBERG, Julie

Department of Chemistry

SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE BIOSENSOR STUDIES OF APOA-I AND APOB-100 BINDING TO SMALL UNILAMELLAR VESICLES

(Lihua Jin)

Atherosclerosis results from the progressive deposition of lipids and cholesterol in the walls of our arteries, which narrows blood vessels and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases. One of the mechanisms that the body uses in regulating the level of cholesterol is the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The initial step in RCT is cholesterol efflux in which a specific protein called apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) is involved in the extraction of lipids and cholesterol from cells. It has been shown that the normal efflux of cholesterol and lipids by apoA-I leads to a decreased risk of atherosclerotic development in blood vessels. However, the mechanism of apoA-I's interaction with cell membranes remains poorly understood. Atherosclerotic conditions are also known to occur whenever the targeting of apoB-100-containing low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to hepatocytes is impaired.

Our research has focused on the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SRP) biosensor method to study the interaction of apoA-I and apoB-100 with small unilamella vesicles (SUV). Complications from earlier binding studies involved the inability to find a good control surface for the binding study. This has led to our current attempts to use a L1 chip. Preliminary results showed that the L1 chip is a suitable chip for apoA-100 binding study. Experiments are underway to obtain kinetic data on apoB-100 and apoA-I binding to SUV.

(Poster Presentation)

 

DAVIS, Timothy

Department of Mathematics

DNA METRICS AND BOUNDS

(Vyacheslav Rykov)

In order to study DNA sequences a method of using sections of DNA as labels is being studied. For these tags to function properly they need to be seperated by some measurable difference that is related to the physical properties of how DNA sequences join together. To improve our abilities to find these codes we examine them as elements of a metric space and for several biologically motivated metrics. In particular we examine the Minimum Alphabetic Similarity Distance. We find bounds on the volume of the code for this metric.

(Oral Presentation)

 

DECIANTIS, Joseph

Department of Physics and Astronomy

2D INTERPOLATION FOR TARGET THICKNESS CALCULATIONS

(Charlie Freeman)

The thickness of a foil can be determined by measuring the energies of a particle passing through the foil. A FORTRAN program "Trim-Thick" has been written which determines the thickness of a gold foil from measurements of the incident energy and energy-loss of energetic alpha particles emitted by a radioactive source. Data from the statistical program "Trim" is used to determine the energy loss of an alpha particle with a given incident energy, passing through a given thickness of gold foil. These data are entered into a file and the program "Trim-Thick" then calculates the foil thickness by a 2D interpolation of incident energy and energy loss of the energetic particle.

(Poster Presentation)

 

EARNSHAW, Mark

Department of Geological Sciences

COMPOSITION OF NEW ZEALAND GLACIERS

(Amy Sheldon)

The Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers are located in the Westland region of the South Island of New Zealand. A conservative model for ice traveling within the glaciers yields an average water (ice) residence time of approximately 1000 years. A recent study of Alaskan glaciers discovered that the basal ice located at the glacier terminus could be dated to an age of 50 years or less (Solomon, pers. commun.). This presents a conflict with the conservative glacier model that predicts ice located within the terminus should be the oldest ice within the glacier. Sampling two New Zealand glaciers for the ice age using tritium (3H), and Carbon-14 dating of wood fragments found within the ice samples will provide a comparison to the Alaskan glaciers. In addition, it may provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ice flow within glaciers. Sediment entrained within the basal ice will be examined for grain size distribution, shape and mineralogy. Results will be compared to the mineralogy of the underlying bedrock. This case study will examine ice movement within glaciers and perhaps provide new ideas for glacial modeling.

(Poster Presentation)

 

FUSCHINO, Julia and COLBURN, Robyn

Department of Physics and Astronomy

TERTIARY NEUTRON DIAGNOSTIC BY CARBON ACTIVATION

(Stephen Padalino)

Stephen Padalino, Sarah Thompson, Heather Olliver, Joel Nyquist, Julia Fuschino, Robyn Colburn, and Brian White (Nuclear Research Lab at the State University of New York at Geneseo)

Vladimir Glebov, Stan Skupsky and Radha Buhukutumbi (Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester)

Craig Sangster (Lawrence Livermore National Lab)

Ed Morris and Anthony Bellian (RTNS Lab at the University of California)

Scott Lassell (Ward Reactor Lab at Cornell University)

The Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester has been conducting experiments using laser induced nuclear fusion as a possible alternative energy source. In order to determine the aerial density of ICF targets, measurement of the yield of tertiary neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV have been proposed. During an ICF reaction, 14.1 MeV neutrons emitted from the T(d,n) fusion reaction strike fuel deuterons. These deuterons then collide with tritium fuel to produce tertiary T(d,n) reactions, yielding high energy neutrons in the range of 18 to 32 MeV. These neutrons then hit Carbon, which has been chosen as an activation material because of its high reaction threshold, in a 12C (n,2n) 11C reaction. The product of this reaction, 11C, has a half-life of 20.3 min and emits a positron, resulting in the production of two 511-keV gamma rays upon annihilation. This reaction has a high neutron threshold near 17 MeV, and the primary 14.1 MeV neutrons cannot activate the carbon. Once activated, the sample is removed from the reaction area and placed in a NaI detector where the 11C consequently beta decays by emitting positrons. After positron annihilation, two back-to-back 511 keV gamma rays are emitted. The number of 511-keV coincident counts is directly related to the tertiary neutron yield of the fusion reaction. The carbon activation diagnostic is intended to be used at the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, California.

Funded in part by the United States Department of Energy.

(Oral Presentation)

 

FUSCHINO, Julia and COLBURN, Robyn

Department of Physics and Astronomy

CARBON PURIFICATION

(Stephen Padalino)

Stephen Padalino, Sarah Thompson, Heather Olliver, Joel Nyquist, Julia Fuschino, Robyn Colburn, and Brian White (Nuclear Research Lab at the State University of New York at Geneseo)

Vladimir Glebov, Stan Skupsky and Radha Buhukutumbi (Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester)

Craig Sangster (Lawrence Livermore National Lab)

Ed Morris and Anthony Bellian (RTNS Lab at the University of California)

Scott Lassell (Ward Reactor Lab at Cornell University)

During an Inertial Confinement Fusion reaction, 14.1 MeV neutrons emitted from the T(d,n) fusion reaction strike fuel deuterons. These deuterons then collide with tritium fuel to produce tertiary T(d,n) reactions, yielding high energy neutrons in the range of 18 to 32 MeV. These high energy neutrons can be detected via neutron activation. During the activation process, the high energy neutrons hit carbon and a 12C (n,2n) 11C reaction occurs. Since carbon has a high reaction threshold of approximately 18 MeV, it is able to discriminate the high energy neutrons from the primary 14.1 MeV neutrons. There are impurities in graphite, such as Cr-50, Ni-58, Cu-65, Cu-63, and 14N, and when activated they produce positron emitters. A tube oven was purchased in order to re-purify the graphite. 14N gas, one of the largest contaminants, can be driven out by heating the graphite disks to 1100 degrees Celsius in a vacuum oven. Once this is done, the disks will be backfilled with argon. Other disks will be backfill with nitrogen, and the results of the two will be compared.

Funded in part by the United States Department of Energy.

(Oral Presentation)

 

GALATI, Brian

Department of Geological Sciences

THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY AT WOODSIDE CREEK, NEW ZEALAND

(Jeffrey Over and Amy Sheldon)

The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary marks one of the greatest extinction events in Earth history. It has been recognized globally by a faunal change, the presence of micro spherules, shocked quartz, as well as high concentrations of iridium that are indicative of a bolide impact. The boundary layer at Woodside Creek is located within the Mead Hill Formation, that underlies the Amuri Limestone, and was the first K/T boundary locality found in the southern hemisphere. At Woodside Creek a thick-bedded bio-wackestone, a fossil-rich carbonate mud, underlies the boundary clay layer. Above the boundary clay layer lies a thin-bedded bio-mudstone, a carbonate mud with sparse fossils. The boundary clay layer itself is interpreted as an instantaneous layer formed from impact ejecta and hemipelagic clay, and is devoid of fossils. Species diversity of planktic foraminifera, small shelled protozoa, and foraminifera size are greatly reduced above the boundary clay layer in relation to the underlying Cretaceous strata.

(Oral Presentation)

 

 

GIFFORD, Shaun

Department of Biology

CELL SIGNALING IN THE COLONIAL ALGA ASTREPHOMENE GUBERNACULIFERA

(Harold Hoops)

Our lab has previously shown that A. gubernaculifera exhibits a chemotactic response toward acetate. A specific receptor mediated process is inferred based on the observation that propionate, a structurally similar molecule, also acts as a chemoattractant even though it cannot support growth. However, virtually nothing else is known about the cell-signaling pathway. Based on information from chemotactic signaling pathways in other eukaryotes, and the phototactic response of some algae, we hypothesized that a heterotrimeric G-protein is involved. In control experiments, the algae are suspended in a solution containing no acetate. The diameter of the chemoaccumulation response is measured after addition of 10 ml aliquots of 0.1 mM to 100 mM acetate. 100 mM neomycin, an inhibitor of certain G-proteins, almost completely inhibited chemoaccumulation with no obvious changes in colonial motility. 10 mM mastoporan, a G-protein stimulator, caused some accumulation even in the absence of acetate. Preliminary results indicate that Ca++ is needed for the chemotactic response. These results support the hypothesis that a G-protein mediates the Ca++ dependent cell-signaling pathway responsible for chemoaccumulation in A. gubernaculifera.

(Oral Presentation)

 

HAMMERLE, David

Department of Mathematics

EXAMPLES OF MATHEMATICAL AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND DIFFERENTIAL GAMES

(Andrzej Kedzierawski)

We discuss several applied problems related to elementary differential equations and differential games. In particular we examine the mathematical theory and numerical solution of pursuit problems. We illustrate our theory by several computer programs that animate our solutions.

(Oral Presentation)

 

HARRIS, Tim

Department of Physics and Astronomy

LASER DIFFRACTION IMAGE PROCESSING

(Ed Pogozelski)

When a beam of monochromatic light is incident on a distribution of spherical particles, the resulting diffraction pattern is a linear combination of first order Bessel functions. A LabVIEW based system is developed to acquire and process these laser diffraction images. Images are digitally acquired using a high-resolution 10-bit grayscale camera. LabVIEW is chosen for its user-friendly graphical interface, ability to display images, and to run external software. The 10-bit images are written by LabVIEW as a spreadsheet and are converted into binary files. From the images, we calculate the conversion factor from pixels to microns, locate the center of the pattern (based on intensity), and convert the Cartesian intensity information to radial coordinates. This radial information is used to compute the distribution of the sizes of the particles. This distribution is critical to the automotive industry for the evaluation of fuel injectors.

(Oral Presentation)

 

HURCHLA, Michelle

Department of Biology

SWIMMING BEHAVIOR OF ASTREPHOMENE GUBERNACULIFERA UNDER CHANGING ACETATE CONCENTRATIONS

(Harold Hoops)

Our laboratory has shown that the colonial green alga Astrephomene gubernaculifera exhibits chemoaccumulation towards acetate. The mechanism by which this response occurs is not yet known. We have been unable to fully characterize the short term responses that are presumed to lead to accumulation. Here we focus on intermediate term behavioral responses that follow changes in acetate concentration. Colonies placed in growth media for 30 minutes with or without acetate had similar rates of turning, swimming speeds and rotation frequencies. To examine A. gubernaculiferaĺs response to the removal of acetate, colonies were transferred from media containing acetate to media without it and observed for three minute intervals. During the first six minutes, colonies were seen to change the direction of their forward progression significantly more often than under steady state conditions (51.3% vs. 85.4%), while the speed of progression and rotation were unchanged. After nine minutes none of these parameters differed from steady state. Taken together these results demonstrate an adaptation response in A. gubernaculifera. The data are also consistent with a chemoresponse based on changes in turn frequency as opposed to one based on changes in the velocity of swimming.

(Poster Presentation)

 

JULIAN, Siobhan

Department of Chemistry

INVESTIGATING DNA SCISSION

(Wendy Pogozelski)

The purpose of this research project is to study forms of free radical scission of DNA in vitro. Free oxygen radicals, OH, are known for their destructive capabilities in the human body. Free radicals are able to react repeatedly without being depleted, hence the cause of their destruction. Our research is concerned with three known OH producing reactions on both supercoiled and oligomeric DNA: the copper-phenanthroline reaction, the Fenton reaction, and gamma irradiation. Specifically, we are examining how much DNA cutting occurs due to the free radical at the 1' position on the DNA strand. The copper-phenanthroline reaction is known to produce DNA cutting at this position; therefore, we are using the copper-phenanthroline reaction as a standard to compare results from the Fenton reaction and gamma irradiation. In each of the cases, the cut DNA sample is run through high-performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC. DNA scission at the 1' position produces the molecule 5-methylene 2-furanone as a byproduct. The HPLC machine can detect this byproduct through elution time peaks and quantify the amount of 5-methylene 2-furanone present. The quantified byproduct amount can be compared from reaction to reaction to determine differences in scission capabilities. By studying the free radical DNA scission in vitro, we hope to better understand how DNA scission occurs in vivo.

(Poster Presentation)

 

JULIANO, Stacey and MCKERNAN, Pamela

Department of Biology

EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT ON THE GROWTH OF THE GREEN ALGAE SPIROGYRA IN CONESUS LAKE, N.Y.

(Isidro Bosch)

Spirogyra is a filamentous green alga that inhabits the streams and lakes of North America, including Conesus Lake, NY. Two separate experiments were designed to determine if nutrient enhancement had an effect on Spirogyra growth.

In one experiment, known quantities of Spirogyra were placed in 12 containers with mesh screening. The average percent change in biomass calculated after two weeks for near, middle and far distances were 35.38, 16.62, and 4.12 (respectively). The growth rates of algae incubated near the stream were significantly higher than algae living farther away from the stream.

In a second experiment, Spirogyra was incubated in 12 closed one-liter containers. Each set of jars contained different concentrations of enhanced N and P; relative amounts of lake water and Spirogyra remained constant. The average percent change in biomass was 19.8 (high nutrient concentration), 10.8 (low nutrient concentration) and 7.5 (no nutrient addition). There was a statistically significant difference in the growth rates of algae living in high concentration and control environments.

The results obtained from these two experiments support our hypotheses that Spirogyra living in an environment with enhanced nutrient levels will have an accelerated growth rate compared to algae living in waters with ambient levels of N and P.

(Poster Presentation)

 

KALLIN, Eric; PIWOWAR, Alan; GORCZYNSKI, Michael; and JULIAN, Siobhan

Department of Chemistry

SYNTHESIS OF BIPHENYL AND TERPHENYL CHOLESTEROL DERIVATIVES: THE EFFECT OF NATURAL VS UNNATURAL CONFIGURATION ON THEIR AGGREGATION AND GELATION ABILITY

(Cristina Geiger)

This paper reports the synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of aromatic derivatives containing biphenyl and terphenyl chromophores attached to C-3 of a cholesterol moiety. As reported earlier, amphiphiles containing similar chromophores: biphenyl, terphenyl, stilbene, tolan, and azobenzene derivatives show strong evidence of ground state association when placed in different organized media. In vesicles and Langmuir-Blodget films they form "H" aggregates characterized by a blue-shift in absorption and a structured, red-shifted fluorescence. The overall results of the present study indicate that biphenyl and terphenyl cholesterol derivatives are able to form stable and thermally reversible gels in a series of organic solvents. While in the gel form, the molecules are immobilized and organized in a "card pack" array or H-aggregate similar to the corresponding polyphenyl amphiphiles. However, the aromatic-aromatic interactions are considerably weaker than those for the more extended, which aromatics leads to less distortion of the assembly structure.

(Oral Presentation)

 

KAPROTH, Katherine

Department of Biology

EFFECTS OF WINE-DERIVED CHEMICALS ON GENE EXPRESSIONS OF NADPH OXIDASE IN HUVECS

(Ming-Mei Chang)

Artherosclerosis, leading to heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease, is the number one cause of death in the United States. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (L.D.L.) with free radicals, such as superoxide anions produced by NADPH oxidase is suggested to be responsible for plaque formation on the lining of arteries and blood vessels, an early sign of heart disease. Chemicals present in red wine may reduce the incidents of heart disease by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity, which in turn decreases the level of oxidized LDL intake by the endothelial cells in arteries. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (important components in red wine), resveratrol dimer and a related chemical called 4-aminoguaiacol on mRNA expressions of the gp91 and the p47-phox in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cells were treated with each chemical (10-5 to 10-8 M) for three days. To see the inhibitory effect, cells were pretreated with each chemical for 24 hours before adding NADPH oxidase inducers, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interferon-g (INF-g) for another two days. Total RNAs were isolated, electrophoresed in a formaldehyde agarose gel, blotted onto a nylon membrane, and hybridized with DNA probes of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91 and p47-phox. Also, proanthocyanidin-treated HUVECs were examined under the light and transmission electron microscope. At 10-5 and 10-6 M, a large number of vesicles were present in the cell, while at lower concentrations there were little or no vesicles present. These vesicles may be early indicators of program cell death caused by higher proanthocyanidin concentrations.

(Poster Presentation)

 

LAAKSO, Joseph

Department of Chemistry

INTERACTION OF 78 ┼ HDL PARTICLES WITH SUV CONTAINING DIFFERENT CHOLESTEROL CONTENT

(Lihua Jin)

In the United States and other Western industrialized countries, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. Previous research conducted by Dr. Jin's lab partially clarified the role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and its role in the mechanism of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In particular, the interaction of 98┼ particles with small unilamella vesicles (SUV) was observed to be more effective with cholesterol-rich SUV. In this work, the role of the 78┼ HDL is being investigated to determine if it interacts with SUV in a similar manner. A sodium cholate dialysis method is used to prepare the 78┼ HDL particles. The particles are then analyzed using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native PAGE) to determine the effectiveness of the separation. Native PAGE is also used to determine the ability of the 78┼ HDL particles in extracting cholesterol from SUV containing varying amounts of cholesterol. It is expected that the 78┼ HDL will be more efficient in extracting cholesterol with increasing cholesterol content in SUV.

(Poster Presentation)

 

LARSEN, Haakon

Department of Mathematics

INSERTION DELETION DNA CODES

(Vyacheslav Rykov)

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences (codewords). An inherent novelty of DNA codes is "reverse complementation". The reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter with its match. For DNA, the matching is A-T C-G and we chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies. The distance between all codewords must be sufficiently great to prohibit, for all practical purposes, binding between codewords - except between reverse complementary pairs of codewords. Our group began the investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary reverse-complement cyclic codes and the ordinary Hamming distance . For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance is the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. The advantage arises because, were DNA sufficiently flexible, the sharing of sufficiently-long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to one of their reverse complements forming a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, I have derived an bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance. Computer experiments involving some of our DNA codes will be presented.

(Oral Presentation)

 

MCCABE, Colin

Department of Geological Sciences

DR. GONZO'S MAGIC ROCKS

(Amy Sheldon)

Across the United States, Junior High and High School test scores indicate a deficiency in the students understanding of math and science. In our technology-based society, television and video games are prolific in our children's lives. The challenge, therefore, is to take advantage of this medium to educate youth. Dr. Gonzo's Magic Rocks will be a geology educational video targeting the junior high student audience. The main purpose of Dr. Gonzo's Magic Rocks is to excite and educate children at an early age about the geology that shapes their world. The immediate objective of the video is to introduce students to the global world of geology through classroom demonstrations and experiments. The first episode will introduce volcanoes. It will address why and how volcanoes form on the Earth, and explain the three major types of volcanoes that exist, including their composition. Educational geology programming presents an exciting medium to introduce students to the physical world around them while explaining the physical, chemical and biological aspects that impact and control the geologic environment.

(Poster Presentation)

 

NEUBERG, Julie

Department of Chemistry

LIPID BINDING OF APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I

(Lihua Jin)

Heart attack is the number one killer in Western industrialized countries. It is the result of atherosclerosis, a progressive disease that begins with intracellular lipid and cholesterol deposits in the inner arterial wall. Studies have shown that excess cholesterol is removed from the membranes of peripheral tissues and transported to the liver for catabolism, a process called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Cholesterol efflux from membranes, the initial step of RCT, is facilitated, in one mechanism, by pre-b high-density lipoproteins (pre-b HDL) containing apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) as its major protein component. In vivo studies have shown that lipid-free apoA-I, in addition to pre-b HDL, also promotes cholesterol efflux, although with less efficiency. In an attempt to understand the role of apoA-I and apoA-I-containing HDL in cholesterol efflux, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to follow lipid binding and extraction by free apoA-I and apoA-I-containing HDL from small unilamella vesicles (SUV). SUV particles were prepared from egg phosphatidyl choline (eggPC) and varying amounts of cholesterol (0-40%) to determine the effect of cholesterol content in apoA-I- and apoA-I-containing-HDL-facilitated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux. It was observed that HDL promoted phospholipid and cholesterol efflux, as evidenced by the formation of larger size HDL particles upon incubation with SUV, and that efflux increased significantly with increasing cholesterol content in SUV. On the other hand, although apoA-I also facilitated phospholipid and cholesterol efflux, efflux decreased with increasing cholesterol content in SUV. We conclude that lipid-free apoA-I facilitates specifically phospholipid efflux by targeting membrane domains low in cholesterol and form pre-b HDL particles low in cholesterol. The resulting low cholesterol pre-b HDL particles target membrane domains rich in cholesterol and therefore directly facilitate cholesterol efflux. This work was also the first to use native PAGE in determining the abilities of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in facilitating lipid efflux, which, for example, can be used to compare lipid binding extraction abilities of mutant forms of various apolipoproteins and lipoproteins.

(Oral Presentation)

 

PALMER, Colin

Department of Physics and Astronomy

TIME-RESOLVED ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY PLASMA

(Kurt Fletcher)

Researchers at the Eastman Kodak vacuum coating laboratory are interested in characterizing plasmas used in industrial processes, such as the manufacture of photographic film. A plasma is a gas of ions and electrons and Radio frequency plasmas are used to modify substrates prior to film deposition. For these 40 kHz plasmas the plasma characteristics, such as ion density and electron densities are time dependent. To see how these values vary with time, a probe was placed in the plasma chamber to measure the voltage and current. The data were subdivided into bins corresponding to the driving voltage phases. The results provide an instantaneous measurement of the plasma at different times within the plasma period. This method will enable time-resolved measurements of plasma properties.

(Poster Presentation)

 

QUERBES, Bill

Department of Biology

INHIBITION OF P47 AND FREE RADICAL PRODUCTION IN HUMAN PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA CELLS

(Robert O'Donnell)

Previous studies have shown that human peripheral blood promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60's) stimulated with phorbol myristrate acetate (PMA) show an increase in free radical production. In this study I looked at a specific cytosolic protein, p47, which upon being phosphorylated moves to the plasma membrane and becomes a part of the NADPH oxidase complex. The superoxide anions produced by the complex are converted enzymatically or spontaneously into other free radicals and elevated levels of these compounds have been linked to various diseases including cancer. Although the exact role of the proteins involved in this complex have been widely debated, p47 is known to be an integral part of the complex. Therefore, the inhibition of p47 production may lead to a decrease in complex effectiveness and a decrease in free radical production. To block p47 translation, antisense oligonucleotides were tranfected into a seperate fraction of HL60 cells while two other control fractions received sense and nonsense oligonucleotides all in the presence of lipofectin reagent. The oligonucleotides were incubated with the cells for 18 hours and then growth medium was added and the cells were incubated for 48 more hours. The cells were plated at a concentration of 5000 cells per well, stimulated with PMA, and free radical production was measured with a Dichlorodihydrofluorescein Diacetate (DCFH) assay in a fluorescent plate reader. Preliminary results do show a decrease in free radical production in cells transfected with antisense oligonucleotides of 40% controls. Therefore, antisense oligonucleotides seem to be an effective way of blocking p47 translation and inhibiting free radical production.

(Poster Presentation)

 

RICE, Daniel

Department of Physics and Astronomy

ANALASIS OF STEREOGRAPHIC IMAGERY OF THE SPIRIT PAYLOAD

(David Meisel)

Two 35 mm automatic cameras where part of the SPIRIT rockets payload. These cameras where not synchronized and that allowed the rocket to move between the subsequent pictures. These where clearified using fouier image processing tequinies. This enabled motion blur to be reduced and the images clarified.

(Poster Presentation)

 

ROSE, Matthew

Department of Physics and Astronomy

ULTRA VIOLET MONITORING OF A RECENT SOLAR ECLIPSE

(David Meisel)

The SUNSOR UV Meter measures atmospheric ultra violet transmission using the sun as its source. This can be done by analyzing the transmission of the sun at various altitudes. An example of this is shown from April 1997. A similar method was applied for the December 25, 2000 partial eclipse. During the eclipse the effective air mass was calculated using the altitude of the sun with a power series expansion. This enabled the reading to be normalized to a unit thickness. The resulting light curve was analyzed and is discussed in some detail.

(Poster Presentation)

 

RUSTAY, Julie and DEGAETANO, Danielle

Department of Chemistry

ISOLATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA FROM A HUMAN FIBROBLAST CELL LINE

(Wendy Pogozelski)

In the past, methods for isolating mitochodnrial DNA (mtDNA) have been tedious and time-consuming. We have been studying new mtDNA purification methods for their efficiency in separating mtDNA from cellular components, including nuclear DNA. The Pierce Nuclear Purification Kit and the Wako mtDNA Extractor Kits were tests on frozen human fibroblast cells (848 cell line). The Pierce Kit was unsuccessful in separating mtDNA from nuclear DNA but the Wako method has shown promising preliminary results. We have isolated a DNA fragment of approximately 16.5 kb. Since this is the size of human mtDNA, we believe that the fragment represents mtDNA. Further experimentation including comparison with purified mtDNA is being done to verify our conclusion. If this method is found to be successful, we will be able to study mtDNA damage under a variety of conditions.

(Poster Presentation)

 

SCHWARTZ, Brook and OLSEN, Michele

Department of Physics and Astronomy

KINMAT2000

(Charlie Freeman)

KINMAT is a computer program that calculates the kinematics of nuclear reactions. Given the energy of a projectile nucleus and the desired reaction, KINMAT determines reaction data including the Q-value of the reaction and the energies of the ejected particles at a range of angles. The user interface of the existing KINMAT program is awkward and difficult to use efficiently. A new version of KINMAT, called "KINMAT2000", has been written in the FORTRAN programming language. This program is a dialog box based, user-friendly version of the program with updated atomic mass data.

(Poster Presentation)

 

SCHWARTZ, Brook and BURKE, David

Department of Physics and Astronomy

OMEGA GAS SAMPLING SYSTEM (OGSS)

(Charlie Freeman)

The OMEGA Gas Sampling System (OGSS) is a new diagnostic system designed specifically for the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' (LLE) OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester. The OMEGA laser is currently the most powerful infrared-ultraviolet laser in the world, capable of delivering 40 kJ of energy on its target. This laser is being used to study Inertial Confinement Fusion. The OGSS will collect the gaseous products of the fusion reaction inside the OMEGA target chamber and pump them into collection bottles. The gas will then be analyzed with a mass spectrometer in order to determine its composition. This project is based at. SUNY Geneseo researchers serve as a local arm of the project for the purposes of installing and administering the device. The OGSS was designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in Livermore, California, and is a prototype for a diagnostic device at the National Ignition Facility, the successor of the OMEGA laser currently under construction at Livermore. Recently the OGSS was assembled and installed at the LLE with the help of the SUNY Geneseo research staff.

(Poster Presentation)

 

SEEBAUER, Jessica

Department of Biology

A SCLERACTINIAN CORAL'S POTENTIAL FOR USE IN REEF-REHABILITATION TRANSPLANTATION EFFORTS: A SPECIES-SPECIFIC INVESTIGATION OF PORITES CYLINDRICA

(Bette Willis, James Cook University)

Scleractinian corals are sessile, colonial organisms that create the coral reefs which serve as the base for much of the biodiversity in the shallow waters of the oceans. The widespread degradation of coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific due to bleaching events and anthropogenic causes has increased the interest in the transplantation of corals as a means of rehabilitating degraded reef areas. I conducted a study at Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, to research the life history strategies of a branching, arborescent coral, Porites cylindrica, in order to investigate its potential for use in transplantation programs in reef rehabilitation efforts. My research suggests that P. cylindrica is a hardy, long-lived, fast-growing coral which relies heavily on asexual fragmentation as a mode of reproduction and dispersal. P. cylindrica demonstrated weak competitive strategies but was able to avoid most confrontations by using the fugitative strategy to acquire living space in a direction away from a potential competitor. The data also suggest that P. cylindrica has taken deleterious incidents like breakage and turned them into advantageous events by reproducing asexually via fragmentation. These qualities of fast growth, ability to out-compete for living space, tolerance to environmental extremes, and resistance to bleaching, deem P. cylindrica a prime species for transplantation efforts.

(Poster Presentation)

 

SMITH, Damon and ZVOLENSKY, Matthew

Department of Biology

EFFECT OF LIGHT QUALITY ON THE GROWTH OF BRASSICA RAPA (FAST PLANTS)

(George Briggs)

Plants normally grow under sunlight that has a mixture of wavelengths, ranging from blue to red (400-700nm). Artificial lights, such as incandescent and fluorescent bulbs also emit over a broad range of wavelengths but do not have the same spectral quality of sunlight. A variety of plant growth characteristics, including stem elongation, leaf area and number, and chlorophyll concentration are influenced by the spectral quality of the light that the plants are exposed to. Because LED's emit over a very narrow band they are useful in experiments studying the effects of specific wavelengths of light on plant behavior, experiments that used to have to be conducted using a series of filters. Using Three colors of LED, we examined the effect of light quality on Brassica rapa development. The plants that were grown under Blue LED's (470 nm) displayed small cotyledon size and an average height of eight centimeters. Those plants grown under Red LED's (660 nm) were taller but had cotyledons of similar size. Under the Yellow LED's (585 nm), the plants showed a very small cotyledon size, growth in height of approximately six centimeters, and displayed minimal amounts of chlorophyll. Future trials hope to give better insight into the quality of light on the growth of plants using LED's.

(Poster Presentation)

 

STEINBAR, Meghan; ROWEHL, Gloria; and FEIL, Stacy

Department of Biology

ORCHID PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

(George Briggs and Janice Lovett)

Plant tissue culture has been used for thirty years as a successful way to propagate plants. Its development has allowed the propagation of plants with desirable characteristics. Commercial growers and consumers already benefit from these techniques through the increased availability of specific crops. Tissue culture has also been used to propagate decorative and ornamental plants such as orchids. The increased availability of orchids through the use of tissue culture techniques has generated an increased interest and market for them.

Tissue culture involves isolating a specific part of a plant and transferring it to a sterile medium where conditions (nutrients and hormones) stimulate growth. There are many different techniques that have been developed for plant tissue culture. The root tip meristem, leaf tips, and the shoot meristem are some portions of a plant that can be isolated and stimulated to grow into an entire new plant.

We have practiced meristem culture and callus culture of geraniums and several species of orchids. The plant leaf tips, shoot sections, and shoot meristems were isolated, sterilized, and placed on sterile B5 and MS medium. Currently we have a sterile orchid culture with no observable growth, and we have observed callus growth in the geranium cultures.

(Poster Presentation)

 

STONE, Robert and DIMATTINA, Andrew

Department of Biology

LDL STIMULATION OF HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

(Robert W. O'Donnell)

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) have been shown to stimulate Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) growth in previous research studies. Irregular proliferation of endothelial cells lining human arteries contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by narrowing the artery. It has been hypothesized that high LDL concentrations can cause formation of superoxide anions (SOA) which triggers the irregular growth of endothelial cells. HUVEC cells were grown and incubated in the presence of LDL and 4-aminoguaiacol (4-Ag) on 96 well plates. The cell proliferation and SOA production were tested using a Cyquant Green Assay kit and a 5-(and -6)-carboxy 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate Assay, respectively. Initially, a stimulation of 25% above control levels was seen when HUVEC cells were incubated with 2.46x10-3 mg/ml of LDL. It was then shown that SOA production had increased by 35% above the control when HUVEC cells were incubated with a concentration of 1.23x10-3 mg/ml of LDL. HUVEC cells were incubated with this concentration of LDL and differing concentrations of 4-Ag. The cells that were incubated with just LDL showed an increase in proliferation of 18% above the control level. When 4-Ag was added with LDL, the increase in proliferation dropped to 4% above the control. Therefore, a 14% decrease in stimulation was seen when LDL stimulated cells were treated with 1x10-5 mg/ml of 4-Ag. Several experiments were conducted to compare this irregular proliferation with that of tumor cells. It was shown that although 4-Ag was effective in decreasing the amount of proliferation, the cell line did not have colony forming ability, nor could it grow in soft agar. This showed that the irregular proliferation was not identical to tumor cell growth. We have shown that incubating endothelial cells with LDL has caused both irregular proliferation and SOA production. Further, when these stimulated cells are treated with 4-Ag, the stimulation was decreased to normal levels.

(Oral Presentation)

 

TRIPI, Laura

Department of Biology

THE EFFECTS OF MONOCYTE SECRETIONS ON HUMAN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

(Robert O'Donnell)

Monocytes play a key role in the immunological fight against malignant cells, particularly via phagocytosis and the secretion of cytokines like TNF-a. These activities can be enhanced by stimulation with Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). THP-1 cells, acute monocytic leukemia cells, and HTB-4 cells, derived from a transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, were cultured in RPMI medium and their supernatants collected at various time intervals after treatment with PMA or DMSO. HTB-4 cells were then cultured in dilutions of the various supernatants and the CyQUANT cell proliferation assay was performed. An ELISA was also performed to test for the presence of TNF-a in each supernatant. HTB-4 proliferation was affected negatively by the presence of THP-1 supernatants, particularly those from 96 hour cultures with PMA stimulation. Results of the ELISA showed that both THP-1 cells and HTB-4 cells were secreting TNF-a in similar quantities. Further studies involving the interactions between THP-1 cells and HTB-4 cells or other malignant cell lines could increase knowledge of effects in vitro and possibly lead to the advancement of the monocyte's immunotherapeutic potential in cancer treatment in vivo.

(Oral Presentation)

 

VACCO, David

Department of Geological Sciences

GEOCHEMISTRY OF A MODERN ANOXIC ENVIRONMENT, BUCK RUN, MOUNT MORRIS

(Amy Sheldon and Jeff Over)

A small pool of approximately 8 m in diameter in Buck Run, Livingston County, New York, becomes anoxic during periods of low flow. The water in the pool is stratified, where the boundary between oxygenated and anoxic water is at approximately 0.5 m beneath the surface. Water samples were collected using a Masterflex peristaltic portable pump. Measurements of pH, Eh, temperature, TDS, and dissolved oxygen were taken in October 2000. The anoxic water had a pH of 6.2 and Eh of -199 mV. Chemical concentrations of the samples were measured using ion chromatography. The dominant ions in the anoxic water were Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, and SO42-. The dominant ions in the oxic water were the same, but at approximately half the concentration. The chemistry of the anoxic water closely resembles the chemistry of groundwater in shale, which underlies the stream.

Development of an anoxic environment in a clear flowing stream conducive to mixing is unusual. The anoxia seems to be due to discharge of groundwater that has percolated through pyritic black and gray shales. This stimulates us to think of larger scale settings where shale dewatering or degassing could result in basin-wide stratification and anoxia.

(Oral Presentation)

 

VACCO, David

Department of Geological Sciences

STREAM TERRACES AND ACTIVE TECTONICS, SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND

(Richard Young)

Stream terraces represent floodplain remnants that have been entrenched by rivers. Climatic change, sediment load, and tectonism can cause terrace formation. The creation of stream terraces is often related to local base level changes, such as sea level or faulting. Uplift in mountain belts causes rejuvenation relative to sea level. The elevations of terraces are used to calculate deformation rates when the ages of terraces are known.

Strath (bedrock) and fluvial terraces at Ben More stream, Kaikoura Mountains, New Zealand are currently being deformed by the Kekerengu fault, a branch of the Alpine fault system. The lowest fluvial terrace gravels contain unusually fine, wood-bearing (lacustrine?) sediments.

Movement on the strike slip fault may have caused temporary damming of Ben More stream. Radiocarbon dating of wood samples from the fine sediments may yield an approximate age for the fault movement that disrupted the drainage, thus allowing delineation of a period of tectonic activity in the Kaikoura region.

The radiocarbon method of age determination covers the period from the present back to approximately 48,000 years ago. The change in the types of sediment seen in the terrace deposits could also be linked to the recent deglaciation of New Zealand about 10,000 years ago.

(Oral Presentation)

 

VALENTINO, Michael and JOHNSON, Douglas

Department of Biology

MAPPING AND QUANTIFING STANDS OF EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL IN CONESUS LAKE, NEW YORK

(Isidro Bosch)

Eurasian Watermilfoil is an invasive submersed aquatic macrophyte, that has colonized and proliferated in the near shore zones of many lakes in North America. In Conesus Lake the most Westerly of New York's Finger Lakes, Eurasian Watermilfoil has out competed many of the native macrophyte species for space and nutrients. In theory, there is a strong positive relationship between the variable annual growth patterns of Eurasian Watermilfoiland the amount of nutrients supplied by the numerous creeks and rivulets of the Conesus Lake watershed. Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Geographic Informations Systems (GIS), and direct quadrat sampling were used to study the spatial distribution and abundance of Eurasian Watermilfoil relative to the position of streams around the Lake. Results showed that the large beds of Eurasian Watermilfoil in the Lake are associated with streams and rivulets. A comparision of macrophyte abundance near the moths of streams to the levels of phosphorus in the stream runoff shows a very strong direct relationship between those variables.

(Oral Presentation)

 

WASSINK, Bronlyn

Department of Mathematics

SYLVESTER MATRICES, RESULTANTS, AND BEZOUTIANS

(Olympia Nicodemi)

The talk will address techniques that transform systems of polynomial equations into linear problems, solvable with linear algebra techniques. These techniques include the use of Sylvester matrices, Resultants, and Bezout matrices. CAS systems such as Maple and Matlab rely on such techniques.

(Oral Presentation)

 

WEISS, Kathryn A. and GONDEK, David C.

Department of Biology

UP-REGULATION OF GFAP AND SOMATOSTATIN IN THE CORPUS CEREBELLUM OF APTERONOTUS LEPTORHYNCHUS DURING NEUROGENESIS

(Sorcha C. Clint and Gunther K. H. Zupanc)

In contrast to mammals, fish exhibit a pronounced plasticity in the adult brain. This involves not only continuous production of new neurons in the intact brain ("postnatal neurogenesis"), but also the capability to replace damaged neurons by newly generated ones in the case of an injury ("neuronal regeneration"). Confocal microscopy has implicated that somatostatin is expressed in two types of glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, and that GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) is also expressed in certain unidentified cells following a lesion to the cerebellum. In this experiment we identified cells that take part in the structural aspect of neurogenesis using immunohistochemical staining techniques. We labeled glial cells using antibodies specific for somatostatin and GFAP markers found on the surface of cells following cerebellar lesions. Using a sequential labeling technique, we examined transverse sections of the brain for double labeled cells. No double labeled cells were found, however double labeled fibers were found in abundance at time points 24 and 120 hours post lesion. There was a perceived decrease in fibers 48 hours post lesion. We believe this shows a recruitment of two populations of cells following the lesion.

(Poster Presentation)

 

WHITE, Brian and BURKE, Sean

Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy

CR-39 PARAMETER SPACE

(Stephen Padalino and Dave Geiger)

S. Roberts (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester)

J. Frenje, R. Petrasso (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

The properties of a solid-state nuclear track detector, CR-39, were investigated and the etch procedure was optimized. Properties such as temperature, water uptake, and solvent all effected the etch rate. The etch rate found at four different temperatures, 70, 80, 90 and 100C, is 0.933, 2.217, 6.600, and 4.867 microns/hr per side, respectively. Water uptake had a significant effect on the etch rate. CR-39 acts like a sponge and soaks up water until it reaches a saturation point, which is different for each temperature, at which point it maintains equilibrium. The best solvent for etching the CR-39 was sodium hydroxide, NaOH. Several other solvents examined including KOH, HCl, H2SO4, and potassium butoxide, none of which produced good results. These results were employed into an improved etching process. We will present these and other experiments.

Research funded in part by the Department of Energy.

(Oral Presentation)

 

WOELLER, Collynn and GRIFFITH, Chris

Department of Chemistry

ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE DELETIONS IN MITOCHONDRIAL DNA

(Wendy K. Pogozelski)

Mitochondria, the cell organelles responsible for energy production, have DNA (mtDNA) that is distinct from nuclear DNA. Determination of the amount of mtDNA in a cellular extract that contains both of these DNA's is a challenging problem. Purification is time-consuming and often results in contamination. Also, mtDNA molecules with alterations such as large-scale deletions can co-exist with normal mtDNA (a condition known as heteroplasmy). These deletions can be detected but are difficult to quantify using current methodologies. We have investigated the use of the Fluorogenic 5'-Exonuclease PCR Assay, known as TaqMan-PCR to quantify the amount of total mtDNA and DNA bearing a specific 4977-bp deletion in cellular samples. We show results using a fibroblast cell line derived from an individual with the mitochondrial disorder Pearson's Syndrome and we compare the findings with plasmid standards and purified human mtDNA. The assay is shown to be reproducible, amenable to multiplex analysis, and easy to perform. It should prove useful to researchers and clinicians.

We have also investigated the presence of other large-scale deletions by amplification of the human mtDNA genome, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. Using normal lymphocyte extracts and cell extracts from the cancer disposition disorder Bloom Syndrome, we have amplified the entire mitochondrial genome in two steps. These fragments are being assessed for deletions and point mutations using restriction analysis.

(Oral and Poster Presentation)

 

WOLFER, Jamison

Department of Chemistry

SYNTHESIS OF PORPHYRINS BEARING PERIPHERAL LINKING GROUPS FOR USE AS PHOTOINITIATED CHARGE TRANSFER CATALYSTS

(David Geiger)

Porphyrins and similar macrocycles are ubiquitous in nature where they play integral roles in such diverse areas as oxygen transportation and storage, energy transfer (photosynthesis), electron transfer, and catalytic detoxification of poisons. We wish to exploit the potential of synthetic nickel(II) porphyrins to catalyze the reduction of hydrogen. Our efforts include the synthesis of porphyrins with peripheral substituents that can be used to link to platinum(II) complexes for possible use in light-activated electron transfer catalysis. Details of the synthesis and characterization of a number of precursors will be presented.

(Poster Presentation)

 

WOLPERT, Ryan

Department of Chemistry

EFFECT OF CONJUGATION ON CHARGE TRANSFER ABILITY OF PLATINUM COMPLEXES

(David Geiger)

Our research efforts have focused on the synthesis and characterization of platinum(II) diimine complexes. Toward that end, we are preparing complexes of the type (ArCC)2Pt(phenR), where R has varying degrees of unsaturation. These complexes have photophysical properties that make them potential catalysts for use in solar energy conversion. A description of the synthetic strategy employed and the results obtained to date will be discussed.

(Poster Presentation)

 

WOOD, William

Department of Chemistry

THE ANALYSIS OF TRANS-RESVERATROL IN RED WINES USING BOTH HPLC AND CZE

(James Boiani)

Recent analysis of trans-resveratrol in red wines using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has provided some unusual results. To confirm these results another technique was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both techniques were used to analyze samples from a local winery along with some other wines. A comparison of both techniques will be presented and discussed. In the future we hope to correlate growing conditions and the fermentation process to the concentration of trans-resveratrol found in the wine with the help of a local winery.

(Oral Presentation)

 

ZAPOTICZNYJ, Lisa and VASQUEZ, Adrian

Department of Chemistry

THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS THROUGH NADPH INHIBITION

(David Johnson)

Atherosclerosis is a disease that leads to heart attack and stroke, the leading causes of death in the western world. The onset of atherosclerosis is believed to involve the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), which transport cholesterol from the liver to cellular tissues. The biological oxidants of LDLs are believed to include superoxide (O2Š) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are produced by NADPH oxidase, an enzyme complex that exists in the endothelial cells that line arteries. Apocynin, a known inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, has been shown to prevent atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

This study examines the chemistry of the NADPH oxidase inhibition process. Specifically, the activation reaction of apocynin and its derivative, 4-aminoguaiacol (4-AG), that occurs in vivo before NADPH oxidase inhibition is researched to determine whether 4-AG could also be an inhibitor of this enzyme.

(Poster Presentation)

 

ZULLO, Amanda

Department of Biology

THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF 4-AMINOGUAIACOL ON A RESISTANT LINE OF HTB-4 CELLS

(Robert O'Donnell)

Cancer is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide with many cancer types showing a poor response to treatment. The drug, 4-aminoguiacol, was tested against a human tumor bladder cancer cell line (HTB-4) and shown to be cytotoxic. To determine the mechanism of cytotoxicity, cytogenetic preparations of control and drug exposed HTB-4 cells were made. HTB-4 cells grown in high doses of drugs died prior to reaching mitosis, so no chromosome preparations could be made. Cells grown in low doses of 4-aminoguiacol for 48 hours reached mitosis but did not show any noticeable chromosome breaks or rearrangements. However, they did show a significant shift in mean chromosome number from 97.75 to 76.6 in two consecutive experiments. In follow-up, ongoing experiments, HTB-4 cells have been grown continually in low doses of 4-aminoguiacol in attempts to establish drug resistant populations and to determine if a similar shift in chromosome number would occur in these resistant populations. To date, cells have been grown continually in 4-aminoguiacol and chromosomal preparation and analysis are underway. If a similar shift were seen, further chromosome analysis would be required to determine specific chromosomal changes that have occurred and correlated with genes located on those chromosomes.

(Oral Presentation)